Network Structure – Scots Beavers http://scotsbeavers.org/ Fri, 14 Jan 2022 14:32:39 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 https://scotsbeavers.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon-4.png Network Structure – Scots Beavers http://scotsbeavers.org/ 32 32 CSX touts Pan Am merger as STB questions competitive aspects of deal https://scotsbeavers.org/csx-touts-pan-am-merger-as-stb-questions-competitive-aspects-of-deal/ Fri, 14 Jan 2022 14:15:27 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/csx-touts-pan-am-merger-as-stb-questions-competitive-aspects-of-deal/ Jamie Boychuk, CSX’s executive vice president of operations, showed the Surface Transportation Board a series of presentation slides comparing the Pan Am tracking, in the photos on the left, to the CSX tracking in the photos on the right. In particular, they examined the condition of main lines, branch lines, yards and tracks passing through […]]]>
Jamie Boychuk, CSX’s executive vice president of operations, showed the Surface Transportation Board a series of presentation slides comparing the Pan Am tracking, in the photos on the left, to the CSX tracking in the photos on the right. In particular, they examined the condition of main lines, branch lines, yards and tracks passing through reservoirs where chemical sprays cannot be used to limit the growth of vegetation. (CSX Transportation)

WASHINGTON — CSX Transportation executives touted their plan to acquire Pan Am Railways during a day-long Surface Transportation Board hearing on Thursday, saying their deal to acquire the New England area will significantly improve service. freight and passengers.

But board members questioned several aspects of the merger, including concerns about Pan Am Southern’s and CSX’s projections for anemic traffic growth.

CSX CEO Jim Foote said the merger is good for shippers, passengers and the national transportation system because of the investments CSX will make in Pan Am’s dilapidated physical plant.

“It is well known that this New England rail network was on the brink of bankruptcy not so long ago before it was rescued by the Guilford Group, now Pan Am. viability of the New England network,” Foote said. “And now we have higher aspirations for Pan Am and its customers. We want to bring Pan Am and its customers into a new era, which will start with bringing them into our Class I network.”

Over three years, CSX will spend more than $100 million to improve Pan Am’s track, bridges and yards as well as its fleet of aging and failure-prone locomotives. Jamie Boychuk, CSX’s executive vice president of operations, showed the board a series of photos comparing Pan Am’s deteriorated track to CSX’s modern, well-maintained railroad.

The maximum speed on the Pan Am track is 25 mph outside areas where there is passenger or commuter service. Pan Am has 200 miles of long-term slow orders on its 1,200-mile network, Boychuk says, compared to just 20 miles on CSX’s 20,000-mile system.

Foote says CSX is committed to rebuilding the Pan Am network, including mainlines that are “so overgrown with trees and weeds you don’t even know there’s a railroad there “.

STB Chairman Martin J. Oberman questioned why CSX would pay a large sum to acquire Pan Am and then spend an additional $100 million to rehabilitate the railroad. CSX expects traffic growth of 2.3% in the first three years of the merger and 1.5% in the following two years, he noted.

“I have a hard time understanding how you’re committing $100 million on top of the purchase price to generate virtually no new growth from the merger,” Oberman says. “I don’t understand the economics of this. And that troubles me.

Boychuk says CSX is taking a long-term view of Pan Am by integrating the region into its network. “Investments, no matter who takes over, have to be made…If no one puts that money into that railroad, at some point, I don’t know what type of railroad is going to stay up there “, did he declare. said.

Sean Pelkey, CSX’s acting chief financial officer, said the railroad would “fight vigorously” to win new truck business and added that he was confident that the physical improvements CSX will bring to Pan Am’s network will lead to a more reliable service, which in turn will produce higher-than-expected growth.

Kevin Boone, CSX’s executive vice president of sales and marketing, said the introduction of single-line service in the Pan Am territory will help win business that currently travels by highway. Pan Am currently hauls forest products from Maine to a transshipment terminal in Ayer, Mass., for example, where trucks then take over for the trip to the New York metro market. CSX will make it an all-rail move to northern New Jersey via Selkirk, NY, Boone said.

Board members spent a lot of time probing the structure of the Pan Am Southern deal. CSX will enter Pan Am Railways’ 50% stake in joint venture Pan Am Southern, which provides rival Norfolk Southern with a route to New England. Berkshire & Eastern of Genesee & Wyoming will be the neutral operator for Pan Am Southern, which includes 425 miles of Pan Am track west of Ayer.

The Department of Justice has raised competitive concerns over CSX having a say in its main rail competitor’s route to New England, while Canadian Pacific says the deal could threaten the viability of the old Boston and Maine main line between Mechanicville, NY, and Ayer.

Several board members expressed concerns that CSX would essentially have a veto over maintenance and improvement projects on Pan Am Southern that would benefit Nova Scotia.

Pelkey ​​encouraged the board to reject the Justice Department’s appeal asking CSX to divest its stake in Pan Am Southern. He compared Pan Am Southern’s Berkshire & Eastern operation to Conrail’s shared ownership by CSX and Norfolk Southern, which serves as a neutral switching operator for both railroads in shared asset areas. “We’ve proven it can work,” Pelkey ​​said, noting that CSX, NS and Conrail jointly develop Conrail’s capital budgets.

Board member Michelle Schultz asked what would happen if the board ordered CSX to divest its stake in Pan Am Southern and there was no buyer able to successfully operate the joint venture .

“One of the problems with surrender, one of the big problems, is that there are a lot of unknowns and a great amount of risk that arises if the board were to take this extreme step of ordering the surrender “, says Peter Denton, an attorney for CSX.

CSX should reassess its deal with Norfolk Southern and consider restructuring the deal. “We would have serious concerns about the failure of this transaction,” Denton said, noting that the board never ordered a divestiture without first knowing who the operator would be.

Council members also discussed whether B&M’s old route through the Hoosac Tunnel would remain viable and whether CSX and NS would benefit from maintaining it. Intermodal and automobile traffic from Norfolk Southern will transition to new running rights on CSX’s faster, fully unobstructed Boston and Albany route to reach Ayer, removing a significant amount of traffic from Pan Am Southern.

CSX will continue to send carload traffic to the B&M at Rotterdam Junction, NY, and will need the route, officials said. As a carload, CSX will remain the second largest user of the old B&M.

Nova Scotia has no other way to get freight traffic to and from New England, spent nearly $150 million on the joint venture initially, then spent $215 million to acquire the southern end of the Delaware and the Hudson with the Canadian Pacific in order to take full control of its route. in Pan Am Southern, Nova Scotia, attorney William Mullins said.

So NS, like CSX, has an interest in ensuring the continued viability of Pan Am Southern, he says.

Oberman noted that Nova Scotia is limited to one 9,000-foot intermodal and auto train via CSX track fees per day. What would happen, he asked Mullins, if the volume increased beyond 9,000 feet and NS had to route more traffic down the single-stack route through the Hoosac Tunnel?

Mullins said Nova Scotia could use the current single-pile netting and forelock operation at its Mechanicville terminal, work with CSX and Massachusetts to fund a $300 million tunnel clearing project, or simply buy NOT outright if CSX opposed a proposed clearing.

Several shippers, third-party logistics providers and New England elected officials have expressed support for CSX’s acquisition of Pan Am.

The hearing resumes today, with Amtrak, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Canadian Pacific and other shippers and officials on the schedule. It is streamed live, with a link available in the Quick Links section of the STB website.

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DraftKings nearing full launch of online sports betting in Oregon https://scotsbeavers.org/draftkings-nearing-full-launch-of-online-sports-betting-in-oregon/ Wed, 12 Jan 2022 17:58:00 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/draftkings-nearing-full-launch-of-online-sports-betting-in-oregon/ DraftKings is coming to Oregon State. The betting company announced on Wednesday that it will incorporate its full online bookmaker from January 18. Oregon originally launched online sports betting in August 2019. As part of the state lottery, bettors were limited to the ScoreBoard app. From now on, DraftKings will be the only legal mobile […]]]>

DraftKings is coming to Oregon State.

The betting company announced on Wednesday that it will incorporate its full online bookmaker from January 18.

Oregon originally launched online sports betting in August 2019. As part of the state lottery, bettors were limited to the ScoreBoard app.

From now on, DraftKings will be the only legal mobile bookmaker in Oregon.

“DraftKings is excited to embark on this journey with the Oregon Lottery as we develop a coast-to-coast presence with our premier online bookmaker for these fans to experience before the NFL playoffs and the Super Bowl,” Paul Liberman, co-founder and president of Global Technology and Product, said in a statement.

“The Oregon Lottery shares our spirit of innovation as one of the most progressive organizations in the real money gaming industry, and together we look forward to delivering the exceptional online sports betting products that Oregonians are waiting.”

DraftKings also has a presence in Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia and Wyoming.

The DraftKings facility in Oregon has been in the works for some time.

Talks circulated about a year ago hinting at a switch, before the Oregon Lottery Commission voted unanimously to move from the SB Tech-based Dashboard app to DraftKings in August. .

Oregon, which launched its first-ever sportsbook in September 2019 at Chinook Winds, did not allow its users to bet on college football.

“We are thrilled with the enhanced experience for our players – including the ability to side bet on the same game. DraftKings is a leading provider in the United States,” added Barry Pack, Lottery Manager of Oregon. “We also see benefits for the lottery, as the move to DraftKings means fewer third-party service providers and a simpler financial structure for player accounts.”

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Eckerd IT professors ‘think outside’ to boost wildlife research – News https://scotsbeavers.org/eckerd-it-professors-think-outside-to-boost-wildlife-research-news/ Mon, 10 Jan 2022 21:49:11 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/eckerd-it-professors-think-outside-to-boost-wildlife-research-news/ This collaboration is on full display at Eckerd College, where two computer science professors help make animal research faster, easier and more accurate. Kelly Debure, Ph.D., professor of computer science, is the driving force behind software used in research on marine mammals and, more recently, Alaskan brown bears. And Mike Hilton, Ph.D., assistant professor of […]]]>

This collaboration is on full display at Eckerd College, where two computer science professors help make animal research faster, easier and more accurate. Kelly Debure, Ph.D., professor of computer science, is the driving force behind software used in research on marine mammals and, more recently, Alaskan brown bears.

And Mike Hilton, Ph.D., assistant professor of computer science, has developed software used in research on frogs and gopher turtles. He released it as open source, so that other wildlife researchers could work with him.

Over the past 20 years, Debure has supervised dozens of Eckerd students who have maintained and improved DARWIN (digital analysis and recognition of whale images on a network). This software, originally implemented under the direction of former Eckerd faculty member John Stewman, has been downloaded thousands of times. It is designed to help researchers identify bottlenose dolphins, but it has also been used by research groups on long-beaked dolphins, fin whales, basking sharks and other related species.

The nicks and notches along the edge of a dolphin’s dorsal fin, along with the scratches and other marks an animal acquires, are features that can be used to uniquely identify a dolphin, Debure explains. DARWIN uses the edge marks to compare the dorsal fin contours for similarity.

The software can help wildlife scientists do something vital to their research: identify individual animals. Debure says researchers who monitor certain animal species must identify specific individuals in order to perform tasks such as making population estimates, determining home ranges and modeling association patterns.

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James Webb Space Telescope Successfully Deploys Giant Golden Mirror into Space | Astronomy https://scotsbeavers.org/james-webb-space-telescope-successfully-deploys-giant-golden-mirror-into-space-astronomy/ Sat, 08 Jan 2022 18:22:00 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/james-webb-space-telescope-successfully-deploys-giant-golden-mirror-into-space-astronomy/ Just 14 days after launch, the world’s most complex space observatory has already overcome some of its biggest challenges. The James Webb Space Telescope successfully completed the deployment of its giant gold mirror on Saturday. “I am so proud of the team – spanning continents and decades – that have achieved this one-of-a-kind achievement,” Thomas […]]]>

Just 14 days after launch, the world’s most complex space observatory has already overcome some of its biggest challenges. The James Webb Space Telescope successfully completed the deployment of its giant gold mirror on Saturday.

“I am so proud of the team – spanning continents and decades – that have achieved this one-of-a-kind achievement,” Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator of NASA’s Directorate of Science Missions, said in a statement. “Webb’s successful deployment exemplifies the best that NASA has to offer: the willingness to try bold and challenging things in the name of as yet unknown discoveries. “

It’s the largest mirror NASA has ever built, but its size has created a unique problem. The mirror was so big it couldn’t fit into a rocket. Engineers designed the telescope as a series of moving parts that can bend origami-style and fit into a 5-meter (16-foot) space for launch.

The mirror can span 21 feet 4 inches (6.5 meters), a massive length that will allow it to collect more light from objects in space. The more light the mirror can collect, the more detail the telescope can observe.

A look back in time

In addition to studying the wealth of planets outside of our solar system, the observatory will look at some of the first galaxies that formed after the Big Bang and explore the very structure of the universe. Webb will act like an infrared sleuth, detecting light that is invisible to us and revealing otherwise hidden regions of space, including distant corners of our universe.

And for the observatory to achieve these goals, the mirror’s 18 gold-coated hexagonal segments had to unfold and lock in perfect order.

The precarious process began on Wednesday when the spacecraft deployed the supporting structure of a secondary mirror. While much of the attention has been focused on Webb’s iconic gold mirror, the light it collects will actually reach a smaller 2.4 foot (0.74 meter) secondary mirror. This relatively small mirror is what directs infrared light to Webb’s science instruments.

Three spacers almost 7.6 meters long support this small mirror. These were successfully set up, locked down and locked down on January 5th.

“Webb’s secondary mirror had to deploy in microgravity and extremely cold temperatures, and it ultimately had to function error-free the first time around,” said Lee Feinberg, optical telescope elements manager for Webb at the Goddard Spaceflight Center in NASA in Greenbelt, Maryland, in a statement Wednesday.

“It also had to deploy, position and lock into place with a tolerance of about a millimeter and a half, and then it has to remain extremely stable as the telescope points to different places in the sky – and that’s it. a secondary mirror support structure over 7 meters long. “

Webb’s golden mirror began to take shape when the first of the two primary wings was unfolded and locked on Friday. These wings are side panels that each contain three mirror segments. This was followed by the unfolding and locking of the second panel on the other side on Saturday.

Risky and laborious process

All Webb deployments since launch have been monitored from the ground by a dedicated team working 12-hour shifts to ensure Webb achieves every achievement along its journey.

Unfolding the mirrors didn’t take long – only about five minutes per side panel, thanks to a motorized process. But the meticulous click-in of the panels took two hours for each.

Now that Webb’s mirror and tennis court-sized sun visor are in place, the telescope is considered “fully extended”.

“The success of all Webb Space Telescope deployments is historic,” Gregory L. Robinson, director of the Webb program at NASA, said in a statement. “This is the first time that a NASA-led mission has attempted to complete a complex sequence to deploy an observatory into space – a remarkable achievement for our team, NASA and the world.”

It will spend the next two weeks traveling to reach its intended orbit, which is about 1.6 million kilometers from Earth.

During this time, the telescope will make small adjustments to the segments of the mirror and make a final trajectory adjustment to fit into an orbit that extends beyond the moon.

“While the journey is not over, I am joining Team Webb to breathe a little easier and imagine the future breakthroughs that should inspire the world,” NASA Administrator Bill Nelson said in a statement. “Every achievement already achieved and future achievement is a testament to the thousands of innovators who have dedicated their lifelong passion to this mission.”

A technically complex feat

Sensors, rather than images, helped Webb’s team monitor the spacecraft as it performed and completed each task.

Initially, NASA considered adding cameras to the spacecraft to aid this process, but they were deemed unnecessary for several reasons. The Large Telescope came to life in space by deploying and deploying multiple components, which repeatedly altered its configuration. Webb is also incredibly bright, so it would be difficult to reduce camera glare. And they would have also added risk to an already insanely complex design.

“Webb’s built-in sense of ‘touch’ (for example, switches and various mechanical, electrical, and temperature sensors) provide much more useful information than just surveillance cameras,” said Paul Geithner, technical deputy project manager for the Webb Telescope at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, in a statement.

Once Webb reaches orbit, the telescope will go through a period of installation in space that will last about five months, which involves cooling, aligning and calibrating its instruments. All instruments will also go through a verification process to see how they perform.

Webb will start collecting data and his first images later in 2022, and those are expected to be released in June or July, forever changing the way we view and understand the universe.

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Mix of old and new as Razorbacks open gymnastics season https://scotsbeavers.org/mix-of-old-and-new-as-razorbacks-open-gymnastics-season/ Fri, 07 Jan 2022 08:03:03 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/mix-of-old-and-new-as-razorbacks-open-gymnastics-season/ FAYETTEVILLE – The University of Arkansas gymnastics team hope to build a squad largely made up of seniors and freshmen to new heights this season under the guidance of third-year coach Jordyn Wieber . The No.11 Razorbacks open their season tonight at 7:30 a.m. against Ohio State at Barnhill Arena looking for strong performances from […]]]>

FAYETTEVILLE – The University of Arkansas gymnastics team hope to build a squad largely made up of seniors and freshmen to new heights this season under the guidance of third-year coach Jordyn Wieber .

The No.11 Razorbacks open their season tonight at 7:30 a.m. against Ohio State at Barnhill Arena looking for strong performances from a great mix of veterans and newcomers. The meeting was originally scheduled for 6:45 a.m. but was moved to a later time to allow a live broadcast on the SEC network.

“We have this really interesting dynamic where we have a veteran team and a rookie team at the same time because our senior class has seven and our freshman class has six,” said Wieber. “I think the challenge will be how to structure our roster. Because obviously those who are here and have been doing university gymnastics for a few years are really reliable. You know what to expect when you put them in the lineup. We have yet to get this information from our freshmen.

The Razorbacks have had a stellar season with last year’s SEC schedule ahead of the Nationals. Arkansas posted five 197 or better, more than half of the eight such scores the program produced in its first 18 years of existence, including an academic record of 197.425 in a win at Auburn .

Arkansas finished second in the NCAA Tuscaloosa Regional Semifinal with a score of 197.25 and then third in the Regional Final, one place in the NCAA eight-team championship qualifier.

Kennedy Hambrick and Maggie O’Hara, of the All-Americans at the all-around bars and uneven bars respectively, are back to lead the huge senior class.

Hambrick broke the school’s all-around record last season with 39.75 in a win over Missouri. The Pearland, Texas native also got 39.7 in the Auburn victory, which earned her two of the top three all-around scores in school history.

O’Hara was a huge boost to Michigan’s transfer training in 2020. She was a second All-American at the bars in the regular season, the first Razorback to earn that honor, and a first team in the playoffs. with a 9.925 at the NCAA Championships.

O’Hara and Sarah Shaffer, both from spring surgeries, are super seniors, while Hambrick, Amanda Elswick, Bailey Lovett, Abby Johnston and Savannah Pennese are fourth year seniors.

A busy freshman class includes stars Leah Smith, Makenzie Sedlacek and Kalyxta Gamaio, as well as Maddie Jones, Frankie Price (recovering from knee surgery) and Cami Weaver.

“It will be, I think, a good mix of rookies and veterans,” said Wieber. “We will obviously see a lot of Leah Smith and ‘Mackey’ Sedlacek and Kalyxta Gamiao. So you’re going to see a lot of freshmen and I think towards the end of the roster you will see some of these older ones anchor it and be that reliable finisher for our roster.

Smith, from Spring, TX, won the 2021 Nastia Liukin Cup with a huge floor routine. She also finished second at the 2021 National Junior Championships with a first place on floor and a second place in the all-around.

Wieber suggested that up to half of the Razorbacks’ 24 routines could be performed by freshmen early on and possibly later in the year.

Lovett is coming out of elbow surgery and stepped up his leadership role to join O’Hara and Shaffer as the most vocal team leaders.

“She’s not quite 100% but she feels really good,” Wieber said of Lovett just before the Christmas holidays. “She had massive elbow surgery in the spring. … Right now she is fully back on the beam and almost fully back on the floor. We have a question mark as to whether she will be back in bars this season.

A powerhouse on the floor exercise and balance beam last season, the Razorbacks added difficulty in all events, but particularly on vault and floor, Wieber said.

“The only event that comes to mind is the vault,” she said. “Right now we have three starting values ​​of 10.0 that we plan to play in the first competition. We have more athletes capable of having 10.0 starting values. … We jump higher, we land harder, that’s great.

“We’ve always been a great ground team, but our level of ground difficulty this year will increase. We have almost our entire team doing “E” passes, which is really good. “

Ohio State, led by fifth-year coach Meredith Paulicivic, just finished fourth in an NCAA Morgantown (W.Va.) regional final with a score of 195.625 which followed a 196.525 in the semifinals.

The Buckeyes were selected to finish fourth in the Big Ten preseason vote, led by all-round veteran Lexi Edwards and rookie Tory Vetter.

Arkansas have a 1-0 lead in the series, securing a 195.775-94.625 victory in a season opener on Jan. 9, 2009 at Barnhill Arena.

Ohio State in Arkansas

WHEN 7:30 p.m.

O Barnhill Arena, Fayetteville

Ohio State 12-18 RECORDS in 2021; Arkansas 7-14 in 2021

RANKINGS Arkansas is # 11 in WCGA Coaching Poll

SERIES Arkansas leads 1-0

SEC TV Network

COACHES Meredith Paulicivic (fifth year at Ohio State); Jordyn Wieber (third year at Arkansas)


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Indian Railways Explores ‘Ground Level’ Construction Options for Running a Semi-High Speed ​​Train to Avoid High Costs https://scotsbeavers.org/indian-railways-explores-ground-level-construction-options-for-running-a-semi-high-speed-%e2%80%8b%e2%80%8btrain-to-avoid-high-costs/ Wed, 05 Jan 2022 05:25:25 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/indian-railways-explores-ground-level-construction-options-for-running-a-semi-high-speed-%e2%80%8b%e2%80%8btrain-to-avoid-high-costs/ Indian Railways hired a consultant to examine the possibilities of running trains at a maximum speed of 200 km / h on the surface instead of an elevated structure, a low-cost solution for a semi-high-speed corridor. In addition, by suggesting low cost semi-high speed rail technology suitable for Indian conditions, the consultant would also explore […]]]>

Indian Railways hired a consultant to examine the possibilities of running trains at a maximum speed of 200 km / h on the surface instead of an elevated structure, a low-cost solution for a semi-high-speed corridor.

In addition, by suggesting low cost semi-high speed rail technology suitable for Indian conditions, the consultant would also explore the options of using the indigenous Vande Bharat trainsets and TCAS (train collision avoidance system) on the wide gauge network. , a measure which should give a big boost to the Atmanirbhar Bharat initiative.

Currently, viaducts are being constructed for the Mumbai-Ahmedabad and Delhi-Meerut RRTS high speed corridor while the metro service is also on an elevated or underground structure.

While it costs around Rs 300 crore to build one kilometer of elevated structure, it would cost only Rs 30 crore for ground level construction for high speed or semi-high speed trains.

In addition, like the RRTS and the airport metro, semi-high-speed trains around the world run at standard gauge. The consultant will also examine the possibilities of running half-speed trains on wide gauge rails.

Since the entire Indian Rail is on the wide gauge network (BG), it would be advantageous for the national carrier to opt for the BG line.

The BG network, locally built TCAS and Vande Bharat trains are considered the best options for Indian railways. If the semi-high speed trains could run on the surface without the raised structures, it would reduce costs considerably.

“The aim is to set up at ground level avoiding raised structures / viaducts to reduce costs,” said a senior official at the Ministry of Railways.

The consultant was asked to consider various technical options and suggest to Indian Railways the best optimized semi-high speed technology to run trains at a maximum speed of 200 km / h on wide gauge route. .

The consultant would also explore the possibility of aligning with road networks such as the national road, national road and existing railways for the proposed semi-high speed corridors.

Alignment with rail or road networks would save the problems of acquiring land and clearing forests for railways, the official said.

There are around eight proposed corridors for semi-high speed trains connecting all major cities in the country.


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Will we see the GPT-3 moment for computer vision? https://scotsbeavers.org/will-we-see-the-gpt-3-moment-for-computer-vision/ Mon, 03 Jan 2022 04:33:56 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/will-we-see-the-gpt-3-moment-for-computer-vision/ It really is the age of great models. Each of these models is larger and more advanced than the previous one. Take, for example, GPT-3 – when it was introduced in 2020, it was the largest language model trained on 175 billion parameters. Fast forward a year, and we already have the GLaM model, which […]]]>

It really is the age of great models. Each of these models is larger and more advanced than the previous one. Take, for example, GPT-3 – when it was introduced in 2020, it was the largest language model trained on 175 billion parameters. Fast forward a year, and we already have the GLaM model, which weighs a trillion dollars. Transformer models like GPT-3 and GLaM are transforming natural language processing. We have active conversations around these models that render the roles of writers and even programmers obsolete. While these can be dismissed as speculation, for now it cannot be denied that these great language models have truly transformed the field of NLP.

Could this innovation be extended to other fields, such as computer vision? Can we have a GPT-3 moment for computer vision?

GPT for computer vision

OpenAI recently released GLIDE, a text-to-image generator, where researchers applied guided delivery to the problem of conditional image synthesis of text. For GLIDE, the researchers trained a 3.5 billion parameter diffusion model that uses a text encoder. Then, they compared the CLIP (Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training) advice and the advice without a classifier. They found that the model generated with classifier-less advice was more photorealistic and reflected a wider range of global knowledge. The most striking feature of this model is that it achieves performance comparable to that of DALL.E at less than a third of its parameters.

Credit: GLIDE

For the uninitiated, OpenAI had released two models inspired by GPT-3 – DALL.E and CLIP – in 2020. Trained on 12 billion parameters, DALL.E can render an image from scratch and modify aspects of an existing image using text prompts. On the other hand, CLIP is a neural network trained on 400 million pairs of images and text. The OpenAI blog said that CLIP is similar to the GPT family to perform tasks such as character recognition of objects and actions. In particular, the OpenAI team predicted that the CLIP applications would be the classification and generation of images. However, a year later, CLIP found various applications such as content moderation, image search, image similarity, image ranking, object tracking and robotic control.

Even before GLIDE, DALL.E, and CLIP, OpenAI researchers released Image GPT. According to the team, the motivation behind this research was that just as a great transformer model can be trained on language; similar models can be trained on pixel sequences to generate completions and consistent image samples.

Although the GLIDE or DALL.E models are much smaller than GPT-3, they can be considered a precursor to similar large models, even for computer vision.

“GPT-3 has compiled and built models out of the box or based on powerful natural language models using probably the largest linguistic data sets, which allows it to be used in different tasks with just additional settings without any additional training. Computer vision and image processing are ready for a similar leap in highly generalized and applicable AI models – the image datasets, use cases and computational capabilities to train for them are readily available. OpenAI itself is working on the GPT image by working on the generation and completion of images, ”said Arvind Saraf, Engineering Manager, Drishti Technologies.

He added, “While these highly generalized models have great potential to extend the reach and use of computer vision technology, like any standard neural network architecture, it is likely to have limitations. The long-term ethical implications of the same and the potential for issues such as identity theft and identity theft have yet to be explored. However, the potential applications are immense, such as scene reconstruction, event detection, and motion estimation in video analysis and 3D scene modeling.

Having GPT-like models for computer vision has its own challenges. Speaking of the same, Kyle Fernandes, Co-Founder of Memechat, said, “Companies like EleutherAI and OpenAI are working on GPT images. These models use both natural language and computer vision concepts. Models like GPT require a lot of data; even smaller models like Ada are 25 GB. Having 25 GB for a GPU is huge – imagine that for a model with 175 billion parameters. That is why, while these models are great, you need huge resources for them. Large companies may be able to afford these kinds of resources, but small businesses can struggle to get their hands on this technology. One possible solution might be to create smaller models and tune them for a specific purpose. “

Other Transformer Models for Computer Vision

One of the most popular Transformer models for computer vision was Google’s aptly named Vision Transformer (ViT). It replicates the Transformer architecture for natural language processing and represents input images as sequences. It predicts the class labels for the image and allows models to independently learn the structure of the image. Google has claimed that ViT can outperform state-of-the-art CNN with four times less resources when trained on sufficient data.

As an improvement over Google ViT, Facebook released Data-efficient Image Transformer (DeiT). DeiT can be trained on 1.2 million images against the hundreds of millions of images required for CNN. It is based on a process-specific knowledge distillation procedure which reduces the need for training.

The Facebook researchers also built DEtection TRansformer, which is a bundle-based aggregate loss that uses bipartite matching and a transformer encoder-decoder architecture. DETR uses CNN for representation of the input images before using a position encoder and then passing it to a transformer encoder.


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Opinion: Goodbye a wild 2021, and welcome to a more normal 2022 https://scotsbeavers.org/opinion-goodbye-a-wild-2021-and-welcome-to-a-more-normal-2022/ Sat, 01 Jan 2022 13:30:00 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/opinion-goodbye-a-wild-2021-and-welcome-to-a-more-normal-2022/ Well 2021 is over and now we can expect 2022 to be hopefully very boring… or maybe not if you’re the stock market. Uprising on Capitol Hill in Washington, New President, Former Federal Reserve Chairman, New COVID Variant, Archegos, Really Interesting Bond Auctions, Resilient Labor Market, Rising Inflation, Crypto Prices soaring, constant chatter from a […]]]>

Well 2021 is over and now we can expect 2022 to be hopefully very boring… or maybe not if you’re the stock market.

Uprising on Capitol Hill in Washington, New President, Former Federal Reserve Chairman, New COVID Variant, Archegos, Really Interesting Bond Auctions, Resilient Labor Market, Rising Inflation, Crypto Prices soaring, constant chatter from a tapering central bank, falling crypto prices, geopolitical tensions, Ray Dalio not helping, another one COVID variant, the deaths of “Screech”, Larry King, Colin Powell and Betty White, gas prices go monkeys, Elon Musk looking even more like “Elon Musk”, the Turkish lira decreasing becoming real, and – of course. – stocks of memes.

Through all of the madness of 2021 we laughed and cried and the stock market went up and up.

The Dow Jones Industrial Average DJIA,
-0.16%
gained 18.7% on the year, while the S&P 500 rose 26.9% and the tech-rich Nasdaq added 21.4%.

In fact, if you were to sum up the year 2021 as an emotion, it would look like this:

But to investors, the year looked more like this:

So what about 2022, or – as some now call it – Monday?

The most popular sentiment this week is that 2022 will be a relative return to normal after the pandemic and political maelstroms of the past two years.

“As hiring continues, spending increases, and businesses hire and invest, the economy will be normal,” wrote Brad McMillan, chief investment officer for Commonwealth Financial Network. “The government is standardizing policy on the same expectations. When you look at the macro image the general theme is 2022 which will take us back to something like normal. “

For many, this return to normal will be a relief, even with a reduction in bond purchases and three likely interest rate hikes by the Federal Reserve and 40-year high inflation that may now be more difficult to manage. control.

In this scenario, market “norms” would mean a return to fundamentals, examining data such as job and wage growth and corporate profits without having to factor in a global pandemic or a capricious Capitol Hill. .

After a few years of wild valuations and an almost religious belief in economic growth and earnings, investors might use a normal 2022 to re-evaluate their feelings towards the rockets of 2021: Tesla Inc. TSLA,
-1.27%,
Microsoft Corp. MSFT,
-0.88%,
and Apple Inc. AAPL,
-0.35%,
and are looking to turn into names they might be surprised to see in bear markets, like Alaska Air Group Inc. ALK,
+ 0.31%,
Southwest Airlines LUV,
+ 0.28%
and – perhaps surprisingly – Walt Disney Co. DIS,
-0.67%
which ended the year down 23% from its 2021 high point in early March.

A return to normalcy will also allow many investors to stop worrying so much about meme stock names like GameStop GME,
-4.47%
and AMC Entertainment AMC,
-6.01%,
which tended to dominate popular discussions around equities in 2021, thanks to a group of cheeky and motivated ‘monkeys’ on social media platforms who became a guerrilla force in the less guarded corners of the market.

While the action around equities meme has cooled since the short, chaotic cutbacks in January, the resentment left behind has not been and the monkeys on social media remain determined to see hedge funds plummet and structure. of the market shift to rebalance what they see as a game that has become too blatantly rigged against the little guy.

This could lead to changes in market practices, such as the payment of order flows, but it will also more likely lead to a new generation of self-taught investors who will roll out across the market to impact a variety of markets. names and sectors as the market rebalances itself into the new boredom of the new normal.

To see the effects of tightening fiscal and monetary policy on memes stocks, one will have to look no further than the options market,

“Excluding index options, meme stocks accounted for 21.4% of total options volume in 2020 and declined to 10.1% in 2021,” reads a report from a December report. by Cboe Global Markets. “The overall volume of options in meme stocks has declined from 2020 to 2021, but there are still a number of days when these stocks represent over 25% of the total volume of options.”

This in turn can cause problems for Robinhood Markets Inc. HOOD,
-2.42%
whose stock ended its first year as a listed company down nearly 49%.

But overall, a more normal, less volatile environment in 2022 will just be a lot less fun.

According to Dow Jones data, when the S&P 500 gains 20% or more in a calendar year, it averages a 7.7% gain the following year with a median return of 10.2%.

According to our theme, it would look like this:

Dow jones

It’s not nothing, but it’s definitely a lot more “normal”.

See you on Monday, when things are less fun and money starts to seem less cheap.

Want information on all the news from the moving markets before the day starts? Sign up for our daily Need to Know newsletter.


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Grassley Opposes Senate ‘Power Structure’ to ‘Gut’ Military Justice Reform Bill – Oakland News Now https://scotsbeavers.org/grassley-opposes-senate-power-structure-to-gut-military-justice-reform-bill-oakland-news-now/ Wed, 29 Dec 2021 05:16:52 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/grassley-opposes-senate-power-structure-to-gut-military-justice-reform-bill-oakland-news-now/ Oakland News Now – Grassley slams Senate “power structure” for “gutting” Military Justice Reform Bill – video made by the YouTube channel with the logo in the upper left corner of the video. OaklandNewsNow.com is the original blog post for this type of video blog content. Earlier this month, Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA) spoke about […]]]>

Oakland News Now –

Grassley slams Senate “power structure” for “gutting” Military Justice Reform Bill

– video made by the YouTube channel with the logo in the upper left corner of the video. OaklandNewsNow.com is the original blog post for this type of video blog content.

Earlier this month, Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA) spoke about his military justice reform bill. Stay connected Forbes on Facebook:…

via IFTTT

Note from Zennie62Media and OaklandNewsNow.com: This video blog post shows the full, live operation of the latest updated version of an experimental network of Zennie62Media, Inc. mobile multimedia video blogging system that was launched in June 2018 This is an important part of Zennie62Media, Inc.’s new and innovative approach to news media production. What we call “the third wave of media”. The uploaded video is from a YouTube channel. When the Forbes Breaking News YouTube video channel uploads a video, it is automatically uploaded and automatically formatted on the Oakland News Now site and on social media pages created and owned by Zennie62. The overall goal here, in addition to our is the real-time on-scene reporting of news, interviews, sightings and events all over the world and in seconds, not hours – is the use of the network existing YouTube social. graphic on any topic in the world. Now the news is reported with a smartphone and also by promoting the current content on YouTube: no heavy and expensive camera or even a laptop is needed, nor to have a camera crew to film what is already on Youtube. The secondary objective is faster and very inexpensive production and distribution of media content information. We have found that there is a lag between the length of the post and the production time and revenue generated. With this the problem is much less, but by no means solved. Zennie62Media is constantly striving to improve the system’s network coding and is looking for interested multimedia content and technology partners.

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Quick charge vs battery swap: which is better? https://scotsbeavers.org/quick-charge-vs-battery-swap-which-is-better/ Sat, 25 Dec 2021 17:24:00 +0000 https://scotsbeavers.org/quick-charge-vs-battery-swap-which-is-better/ Back in the days when a Nissan Leaf barely had enough range to traverse city limits, electric vehicles were seen as a bigger problem than the one they were trying to solve – urban pollution. Not only did they have a limited range of around 70 miles (113 km), but they also lacked fast charging, […]]]>

Back in the days when a Nissan Leaf barely had enough range to traverse city limits, electric vehicles were seen as a bigger problem than the one they were trying to solve – urban pollution. Not only did they have a limited range of around 70 miles (113 km), but they also lacked fast charging, with charging time taking hours. In addition, there was almost no public office. It was in this context that the idea of ​​battery swapping emerged as the best alternative to battery charging.

The battery swap allowed a fully charged battery to be installed in a matter of minutes. Also, it was seen as a way to lower the price of electric vehicles, as cars were sold essentially without a battery. Instead of, VE the owners paid a subscription for the battery and so the concept of “battery as a service” was born. Better Place was the company that pioneered the concept, but failed to make it popular.

Better Place teamed up with Renault for a trial run in Israel and Denmark, but things ultimately fell apart. Not only was the battery swap station insanely expensive, at $ 2 million each, the Israeli company failed to involve other electric vehicle makers. In 2012, the company was wound up, and the battery swap was ultimately declared one of the most spectacularly failed technologies of the 21st century. But not until Tesla tries (and gives up) offering the battery swap for the Tesla Model S a year later.

Today, battery swapping is still viewed by many as a viable alternative to battery charging. While fast charging has become the norm in Western countries, Chinese companies like Geely and NIO are still pushing in the direction of battery swapping. Both operate an extensive network of auto-swap stations in China that can change a car’s battery in under a minute, without the driver even getting out of the car.

It seems like the nirvana of owning an EV, faster and more convenient than refueling an ICE car in a gas station. NIO announced in September that it has completed the fourth million battery swaps, so it must be successful, at least for NIO and its customers. It looks like we have a solid proposition here, why not make it the norm in the world?

Well, before we jump to any conclusions, we need to look at all aspects of the dilemma between battery swapping and fast charging. Surely there was something that prompted Tesla to abandon the concept in 2013, right? The American company cited several reasons, including cumbersome exchange stations and lack of customer interest, but there are other reasons to consider as well.

Perhaps one of the most important concerns the technical aspects of modern electric vehicles. The Li-Ion battery is arguably the most complex component in an electric car, and they tend to become an integral part of the rigid structure of the car. They usually involve sophisticated temperature management systems to keep them cool during heavy acceleration and warm before plugging them into a fast charger for maximum performance. This means that the water pipes go in and out of the battery. Now you see how big a big no battery replacement is in this case.

In addition, the optimization of batteries for the exchange requires standardization and it is quite difficult to embark several car manufacturers to make it a large-scale company. Hell, they couldn’t even agree on a charge socket. Even for NIO, that means having unique batteries for all of its vehicles. While not impossible, it drastically limits the options for an automaker. It also means simpler designs, less capable vehicles, and shorter battery life, as water cooling is out of the question.

But the final nail in the coffin is the breakneck speed at which electric cars and DC fast-charging stations are advancing. Today’s new electric vehicles regularly offer a range of over 300 miles, with Lucid Air’s EPA range at a maximum of 520 miles. It’s way more than what most people drive on one leg and they still have to stop for coffee anyway, why not do it at a fast-charging station? In 20 minutes you can recharge the battery of a modern car to enable another long trip. In the case of Lucid Air above, we’re talking about around 300 miles of range on a 20-minute charge.

The convenience of fast charging is undeniable, especially when contrasted with the complexity of exchange stations. This also comes with the need to have lots of car batteries lying around and even carry them from station to station depending on the demand of drivers. That’s not to say the battery swap is a dead end. This could be an opportunity for VTC operators and other electric vehicle fleets where even the shortest downtime reduces revenue.


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